Petroleum Products

Flash Point By Pensky Martens Apparatus

Approx Price: Rs 100 / Onwards 
IS:1209-1958 AND IP34/58

The Pen sky Marten’s Apparatus is used for determining the closed Flash Point of all Petroleum HAVING A Flash point above 48.9*C (120*F), except for out-back Bitumens.

The main components of the Pen sky Martens Flash Point Apparatus are follows:

  • Oil Cup
  • Air Bath
  • Electric Heating Arrangement
  • Energy Regulator Box
  • Top Plate
  • Cover Assembly Having
  • Cover
  • Shutter
  • Stirring Device
  • Flame Exposure Device
  • Thermometer Socket

Thermometers:

IP 15C    -7*c TO 100* (LOW)
IP 16C    90*c TO 370*c(HIGH)


Either of the thermometers may be employed if the indicated reading falls within 93* to 110*C. For tests in which the indicated reading falls within the limits –7 to 93*C (20 to 200*F), the IF 15C thermometer shall be used and for tests in which the indicated reading falls within the limits 110 to 370*C (230 to 700*F) the IP 16C thermometer shall be used.
A blue print figure 1 is attached to show the constructional details.


Descriptions:

 

The brass oil cup is meant for heating the Petroleum Products to the Flash Point. It carries a mark all round in the inside to show the required level of liquid.

The cup has a flange which rests on the brass top and the lower parts of the cup is within the Air Bath or Heating Vessel. The top plate is screwed on the Air Bath through brass spacers, so that an air gap is  produced between the cup and the Air Bath by which the transmission to the cup is almost entirely by heated air. The cup flange has an indicator to fit correctly on the Top Plate. The heat is supplied from 220V A.C. Mains, by an electric heater kept below the Air Bath and the regulation of the heat is done by the Energy regulator. The function of the Air Bath and the Top Plate is to prevent external air droughts from interfering with the heating.


The cover proper of the lid is made of brass plate and has a tubular fitments which enables it to sit on the cup. The cover proper is illustrated in Figure 2

It has three holes B,A & C in the peripheral region and also one circular hole which carries a split tube for taking brass collar of a thermometer, and one central hole admits stirrer rod.

The peripheral hole A is larger and the flame exposure to the oil under test is given through it. The flame is produced by a burning gas jet of a gas reservoir fitted close to the hole A. The gas is supplied from gas mains. The shutter is a brass disc fitted concentrically on the cover proper. It  has two peripheral holes matching the hole b & A of the cover proper. The shutter can be rotated by the spring loaded handle G which is mounted on the cover proper. Initially the shutter keeps all the holes B,A, &C, closed proper . Initially the shutter keeps all the holes B,A & C closed but by slight rotation all the three holes get exposed. A lever arrangement fitted to the shutter tilts the gas Chamber in such a way that the gas jet with the flame enters the hole momentarily.

The gas chamber has another ancillary jet called the Pilot flame F in figure 1. This enables the main gas jet to be relighted if extinguished during the test. The pilot flame burns continuously and is away from any of the holes of the cover proper.

Where gas supplied is not available, an oil burner replaces the gas chamber. A cotton wick produces the flame, otherwise the mechanism is similar as for the gas jet. A pilot oil flame is also provided in this case.

 

Smoke Point Apparatus

Approx Price: Rs 100 / Onwards 

Owing to the technologically advanced manufacturing units, we are offering a sustainable variety of Smoke Point Apparatus. It determines the smoke point of kerosene and aviation turbine fuel by measuring the maximum flame height prior to smoke formation and comparing the results with those of known standards.

 

Features:

 

  • Tripod stand, lamp body and chimney

  • Viewing window

  • Robust construction

  • Calibration and verification equipment available

Bulk Density Apparatus

Approx Price: Rs 100 / Onwards 
Description:

Digital Automatic Tap Density Test Apparatus is designed to meet the requirements of USP Standards It can hold two cylinders, capacity: 100 ml. The mechanism provides simultaneously rotating and tapping motion to the cylinders for packing the sample under test evenly and uniformly together.
The user has to select the No. of stokes in the counter & other electing just press start & it start the strokes & the Digital display shows the No. Of strokes.

Softening Point Apparatus

Approx Price: Rs 100 / Onwards 
Descriptions:

Procedure: Preparation of Test Sample - Heat the material to a temperature between 75*C and 100*C above its softening point stir until it is completely fluid and free from air bubbles and water and filter, if necessary through IS siese 30 ( see is:460 - 1962). Place the rings, previously heated to a temperature approximating to that of molten material, on a metal plate which has been coated with a mixture of equal parts of glycerin and dextrine and fill with sufficient melt to give an excess above the level of the ring when cooled. After cooling for 30 minutes in air level the material in the ring by removing the excess with a warmed, sharp knife.

Materials of softening point below 80*C assemble the apparatus with the rings thermometer and ball guides in position and fill the bath to a height of 50mm above the upper surface of the ring with freshly boiled distilled water at a temperature 50*C. Maintain the bath at temperature of 50*C for 15 minutes after which place a ball previously cooled to a temperature of 50*C by means of forceps in each ball guide. Apply heat to the bath and stir the liquid so that the temperature raises at a uniform rate of 5.0+0.5*C per minutes until the material softens and allow the ball to pass through the ring. The rate of temperature rise shall not be averaged over not fall within the specified limits after the first three minutes shall be rejected. Make the determination in duplicate. Materials of softening point above 80*C the procedure for materials of softening point above 80*C is similar to that described above with the difference that glycerin is used in the place of water in the bath and the starting temperature of the test is 35*C make the determination in duplicate.

Report: Record for each ring and ball, the temperature shown by the thermometer at the instant the sample surrounding the ball touches the bottom plater of the support, if any or the bottom of the bath.
Report to the the nearest 0.5*C the means of the temperature recored in the duplicate determinations, without correction for the emergent stem of the thermometer as the softening point.

Precision: Test results shall not differ from the means by more than the followings:

Specifications:

Softening Point
*C
Repeatability
*C
Reproducibility
*C
40 to 60 1.0 5.5
61 to 80 1_5 5_5
81 to 100 2.0 5.5
101 to 120 2.5 5.5
121 to 140 3.0 5.5

Penetrometer

Approx Price: Rs 100 / Onwards 

Anline Point Apparatus

Approx Price: Rs 100 / Onwards 

Cleavland Cup Apparatus

Approx Price: Rs 100 / Onwards 
Description:

Scope : This method describes the procedure for determining the flash and fire points of petroleum products, except fuel oils and those products having an open – cup flash point below 70*C.

Outline of the Method : The test cup is filled to specified level with the sample. The temperature of the sample is increased fairly rapidly at first and then at a slow constant rate as the flash point is approached. At specified intervals, a small test flame is passed across the cup. The lowest temperature at which application of the test flame causes the vaporous above the surface of the liquid to ignite momentarily is taken as the flash point.

To determine the fire point, the test is continued until the application of the test flame causes the oil to ignite and burn for at least 5 seconds.


Preparation of Apparatus : Support the apparatus on a level steady table in a drought free room or compartment. Shield the top of the tester strong light by any suitable means to permit ready detection of the flash point.

Wash the test cup with an appropriate solvent to remove any oil or traces of gum or residue reaming from a previous test. If any deposits of carbon are present, they may be removed with steel wool. Flush the cup with cold water and dry for a few minutes over and open flame or a hot plate to remove the last traces of solvent and water. Cool the cup to a point at least 56*C below the expected flash point before using.

Support the thermometer in a vertical position with the bottom of the bulb 6 mm from the bottom of the cup and locate at a point half way between the center and side of the cup on a diameter perpendicular to the are (or line) of the  sweep of the test flame and on the side opposite to the test flame burner arm.

Note : The immersion line engraved on the thermometer is about 2 mm below the level of the rim of the cup when the thermometer is properly positioned.

Procedure : Tests shall not be performed in a laboratory hood (seen note) or at any other location where droughts occur. During the last 17 deg.  rise in temperature prior to the flash point, care shall be taken to avoid disturbing the vaporous in the test cup by careless movements or breathing near the cup.

Note: With some samples where vapors or products of pyrolysis are objectionable, it is permissible to place the apparatus with shield in a hood, the drought of which is adjustable so that vaporous may be withdrawn without causing air currents over the test cup during the final 56 Deg rise in temperature prior to the flash point.

Note: Viscous samples may be heated until they are reasonably fluid before being poured into the cup; however the temperature during heating shall not exceed 56 deg below the probable flash point.

Correction for Barometric Pressure : If the barometric pressure at the time of the test is less than 715 mm Hg, record it and add the appropriate correction, given below to the flash and fire point values as determined in 5.5 and 5.6.


Barometric/Pressure Correction to be Applied
mm Hg Applied *C
715 to 635 2.8
634 to 550 5.5




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